Twitter Pop Quiz Answers (Day 228)

Today’s Diary Entry is sponsored by Pet Webinars

Well today as I had my Anatomy credit (I passed btw) I tried something new hosting a day long quiz on twitter with random questions to do with animals. I believe that people did enjoy it so will do another one soon, however for today’s questions the answers are all below!

Q1. Starting with the mammary gland, which has the most teats(nipples), the dog or the cat?

Answer: As surprising as it is, a dog has between 8 – 12 nipples whilst a cat only has 8!

Q2: Which has more teeth, the cat or the dog?

Answer: This one is a vets favourite question! A dog has 42 teeth and a cat has 30 teeth!

Q3: Which animal has the longest pregnancy, and how long is it?

Answer: The elephant has the longest pregnancy of around 22 months or 660 days!!!

Q4: What is the most common poison for dogs?

Answer: The most commonly reported poisoning cases for 2012 were that of human prescription medications! Dogs are great for nipping in and grabbing pills when us owners manage to drop them whilst taking them. The most common human “food” poison is as always chocolates and grapes!

Q5: What vaccinations are recommended for dogs in the UK?

Answer: The core vaccines recommended for dogs in the UK are Distemper, Hepatitis (CAV-2), Leptospira canicola, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, Parvovirus, and in some places Rabies. In addition to these there are also several vaccinations that may be recommended depending on the prevalent diseases in the area you are located!

Q6: Between what ages will a cat reach puberty and be able to have kittens?

Answer: A cat will reach puberty between 4 – 12 months of age!

Q7: Why is milk bad for hedgehogs and what other common pet is it also bad for?

Answer: Hedgehogs lack the ability to digest lactose which is the sugar that milk contains! This is also a problem for cats – luckily there is special “kitten milk” available which can be used for both cats and hedgehogs that does not contain lactose!

Q8: How much petfood should you feed a pet?

Answer: When feeding petfood you should always follow the manufacturers guidelines which are included on the packaging! These are developed with extensive research and are generally the best guideline you will get (unless your vet tells you otherwise!). Most of these are given by weight so when starting a new food, when you first use it if you keep a specific “petfood” container to measure a portion you can draw a line to indicate the amount!

Q9: How do dogs manage their temperature to keep cool in hot weather?

Answer: Dogs don’t have normal sweat glands (the only sweat glands are on their feet!) so cool themselves down by panting with their tongue out! This allows air to flow over the tongues and also for cool air to be breathed in – which is why locking dogs in hot cars is so dangerous and can kill a dog so quickly!

Q10: Why is smoking inside so bad for cats and other pets?

Answer: Unlike humans that just breathe the second-hand smoke in, the smoke actually settles on a animals fur so when they groom themself they are literally eating the bad particles that are in the smoke! It has been suggested that there is a link in increased pet cancers in households with smokers however there has been definate research to back this up yet!

Q11: What is the classic sign of abdominal (stomach) pain in dogs?

Answer: When a dog has stomach pain they commonly adopt the praying position – this is where their heads and shoulders are down whilst the abdomen is raised up!

Q12: What pet do you have, and why did you choose that pet?

Answer: Add your answer in the comments below…. 🙂

Atopic dermatitis – an update

Topic: Atopic dermatitis – an update
Speaker: Professor David Lloyd BVetMed PhD FRCVS DipECVD
Date: Wednesday 8th May 2013, at 1pm – 2pm GMT Time: 8pm – 9pm GMT

Part of the FREE Virbac Spring Dermatology Webinar Series presented by Professor David Lloyd BVetMed PhD FRCVS DipECVD. European and RCVS Specialist in Veterinary Dermatology and Professor of Veterinary Dermatology at the Royal Veterinary College.

This webinar is free of charge, please REGISTER HERE FOR THIS WEBINAR

This webinar is free of charge, please REGISTER HERE FOR THIS WEBINAR

An Approach to Feline Pruritus

Topic: An Approach to Feline Pruritus
Speaker: Dr Dodoer-Noel Carlotti
Date: Wednesday 1st May 2013 Time: 8pm – 9pm GMT

A free webinar sponsored by Elanco and presented by Dr Didier-Noel Carlotti DVM Diplomate ECVD.

Internationally recognised expert in dermatology, Dr Didier-Noel Carlotti DVM Diplomate ECVD shares his approach to cases of feline pruritus. The webinar will include:

  • review of the clinical signs and presentations of pruritus in feline patients
  • differential diagnoses for pruritus and how to rule them in or out
  • advice on the management of feline allergic skin diseases

This webinar is free of charge, please REGISTER HERE FOR THIS WEBINAR

Escaping my birthday… (Day 219)

Hlavna (main street) in the sun in Kosice, Slovakia

Today’s Diary Entry is sponsored by Pet Webinars

Well today was my birthday, if it wasn’t for facebook I would have got away with skipping it. Not only am I 26, however in Slovakia (and in fact a lot of Eastern Europe) you lose eligibility to student discounts when you turn 26. This means that the trams have just doubled in price for me from 25 cents up to 50 cents, along with losing discounted entry to various attractions. This evening I had a quite meal out in town which was pretty awesome (my favourite Italian restaurant) with quite a few people from my class! Especially when the weather is like this and all the restaurants here have tables in the street…

Hlavna (main street) in the sun in Kosice, SlovakiaBefore this however today felt long, it started at 8am this morning with a look at bumblebee’s and how the different types of bee’s are used. We then looked at the different treatment options for diseases in bee’s along with the application of treatment to bee’s. Surprisingly it (at least in theory) is easier to administer antibiotics to bee’s than it is to cats which is pretty cool. There are different options from setting a drug saturated strip on fire within the hive to placing strips where the bee’s will come into contact with them.

We then had fish where it was about parasitic infections which is one of the common problems with fish. We then had physiology with a rescheduled Animal Nutrition practical after it so after starting at 8am we finished around 6pm this evening…

The start of Veterinary Embryology… (Day 218)

Histology of the eye section of the retina

Today’s Diary Entry is sponsored by Pets Bureau

For those that don’t know what embryology is; it is the growth of an animal after fertilisation of an egg (ovum) by sperm (or in the case of some species self-fertilisation). The sperm and egg fuse together with the haploid DNA contained in each combining to form diploid DNA within the nucleus. This single cell the goes on to rapidly divide multiple times with the number of cells doubling with each division (2-4-8-16 etc). Talking simply, this then folds in on itself (invaginates) to form a tube through the middle which will later become the digestive system. At this stage 3 different layers are formed; the ectoderm which is the outer later, the mesoderm which is the middle layer and the internal layer which is the endoderm. The cells in each of these layers are then differentiated to form different organs and structures related to that part of the body – for example the ectoderm forms the majority of the skin.

After embryology we then had the histology lecture that we had missed previously on the senses and today looked at the eye and ear. Personally I think the eye is amazing as the cells here are some of the fastest replicating cells within the body – most injuries to the surface layer heal within hours! The retina is the part of the back of the eye that is responsible for processing images into nerve pulses for the brain to understand and under the microscope looks like this…

Histology of the eye section of the retina

Looking at it quickly the layer at the top which is thick forms the fibres that holds the eye together known as the choroid and is attached to the sclera. Under this we then have a layer of pigment before the layer of rods and cones with the associated ganglionic nerve structures.

We finished this afternoon with our Physiology lecture which was looking at the brain, this is something so complex that by the end of the lecture most of use had our head aches. As vets we need to understand how different signals are processed, and the areas of the brain that deal with different functions of the body. In fact if we wanted we could actually progress to become Veterinary Neurosurgeons…. Is that cool or what?!?!

A close up on extractions – The ifs, whens, whys and hows of Dentistry

Topic: A close up on extractions
Speaker: Rachel Perry
Date: Monday 15th April 2013 Time: 8pm – 9pm British Summer Time

The first of two free webinars on Veterinary Dentistry presented by Rachel Perry BSc, BVM&S, MANZCVS (Small Animal Dentistry & Oral Surgery), MRCVS.

Extractions form a large part of dentistry in small animal practice. This webinar will cover the fundamentals of extraction techniques, and also provide guidelines to assist in the decision making process.

This webinar is free of charge, please REGISTER HERE FOR THE IFS, WHENS, WHYS AND HOWS OF DENTISTRY

About Rachel Perry BSc, BVM&S, MANZCVS (Small Animal Dentistry & Oral Surgery), MRCVS

Rachel graduated in 1997 from Edinburgh University and joined a small animal practice on the south coast. She developed an interest in small animal dentistry after attending CPD courses provided by BVDA, and then attended a 4 year programme organised by ESAVS covering advanced dentistry and oral surgery techniques. Since 2010, her practice has been limited to dentistry and she provides first opinion and referral small animal dentistry and oral surgery services in the Sussex area. In 2012 she gained entry to the Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists by examination on the subject of Small Animal Dentistry and Oral Surgery. She is an Alternate pathway resident with the EVDC, and teaches at undergraduate and postgraduate level.. She has lectured at national and international level and has been course organised for the BVDA since 2008.

Dentistry is for life! – The ifs, whens, whys and hows of Dentistry

Topic: Dentistry is for life!
Speaker: Rachel Perry
Date: Wednesday 17th April 2013 Time: 8pm – 9pm British Summer Time

The second of two free webinars on Veterinary Dentistry (you will get a recording of the first webinar if you register for this one).

Everyone understands the fact that dental disease is common in older pets. However, dental problems occur commonly throughout life. This webinar will cover the most commonly encountered problems in small animal practice and provide skills to enable early detection, treatment, and in some cases prevention. The approach to the geriatric patient with dental disease and concurrent systemic issues is also addressed.

This webinar is free of charge, please REGISTER HERE FOR THE IFS, WHENS, WHYS AND HOWS OF DENTISTRY

About Rachel Perry BSc, BVM&S, MANZCVS (Small Animal Dentistry & Oral Surgery), MRCVS

Rachel graduated in 1997 from Edinburgh University and joined a small animal practice on the south coast. She developed an interest in small animal dentistry after attending CPD courses provided by BVDA, and then attended a 4 year programme organised by ESAVS covering advanced dentistry and oral surgery techniques. Since 2010, her practice has been limited to dentistry and she provides first opinion and referral small animal dentistry and oral surgery services in the Sussex area. In 2012 she gained entry to the Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists by examination on the subject of Small Animal Dentistry and Oral Surgery. She is an Alternate pathway resident with the EVDC, and teaches at undergraduate and postgraduate level.. She has lectured at national and international level and has been course organised for the BVDA since 2008.

How to do a Gram Stain… What a difference a wall makes! (Day 215)

Proteus Mirabilis on Blood Agar

Today’s Diary Entry is sponsored by Pet Hooligans

Well today was interesting as we are looking at Gram positive bacteria which are different to the Gram negative bacteria that we have been studying previously. The grouping into gram negative and gram positive bacteria is the most basic step in the identification of bacteria using a technique called Gram Staining (or Gram’s method). The gram stain technique was invented by Hans Christian Gram in the Berlin city hospital in 1984 whilst working in the morgue. Hans originally designed gram staining to make it easier to view bacteria in lung tissue, and noted that it did not stain all the types of bacteria.

Proteus Mirabilis on Blood Agar

This phenomenon is due to differences in the structure of the cell wall when exposed to different chemicals. There are four different chemicals used in the gram stain process; a basic dye, a mordant, decoloriser, and counterstain.

The basic dye is applied first before the mordant which is a substance that increases the bond between the dye and cell wall helping to fix the dye inside the cell. This makes it more difficult to wash off the dye and in the gram stain fixes the gram positive blue colour. A decoloriser is then used which is a substance that removes the dye from the stained cells, this ability varies between the cell wall type and so only gram negative cells lose their dye. The final counterstain is another dye that is applied and fills the cells that have just been cleaned by the decoloriser giving the gram negative red colour.

How to do a Gram Stain

Doing a gram stain is one of the most basic procedures in the microbiology laboratory, and so I wanted to make sure that I had covered it here. The video below demonstrates the steps that are outlined here:

  1. Apply bacteria to a slide, if using a culture plate add a drop of saline solution to the slide to allow the bacteria to be easily spread and then air dry this over a bunsen flame.
  2. Fix the bacteria to the slide by passing the slide back and forth through the bunsen flame.
  3. Apply crystal violet to the slide and let it react for 30 seconds.
  4. Rinse the slide thoroughly under running water
  5. Apply Grams Iodine (or Lugols solution) for 30 seconds
  6. Rinse the slide under running water and then apply 95% ethyl alcohol for 10 seconds
  7. Rinse the slide under running water.
  8. Apply the counterstain; in our case carbolfuchsin for 30 seconds
  9. Rinse the slide under running water and then allow to dry.
  10. Examine the slide under the microscope – I prefer the 100x Oil Immersion lens here!

The video demonstrating how to do a gram stain is here:

[youtube_sc url=”-BiH06Lddg0″ title=”How%20to%20do%20a%20gram%20stain%20video” rel=”0″]

Talking chickens, turkeys and duck… (Day 214)

Free Range Chicken

Today’s Diary Entry is sponsored by Best Chicken Food

When you sit down to christmas dinner or your sunday roast have you ever wondered where the chicken or turkey your are eating has come from? Personally I used to, though now I find myself unconsciously naming the bones and muscles of the bird (why I don’t like eating meat of the bone). I believe there is a big divide between food production and people’s meals brought together in part through the growth of giant supermarkets and the decline of local butchers. I think today is a good time to remember that this processed chicken wing dinner…

Processed chicken wing dinner

Actually comes from chickens like this…

Free Range ChickenWell maybe not exactly like this as they are likely to be factory farmed in a broiler unit which is a massive shed where thousands of chickens are grown to weight before they are slaughtered for food. One of my biggest shocks today was the revelation that chickens actually moult – this means they lose their feathers which are then replaced when they grow new ones. As the hen stops laying during this time many chicken units will only keep them until their first moult before they then are either re-homed or go for slaughter.

Previously I had been really against factory farming of chickens as all the “rescue” pictures I’d seen showed chickens looking really bald with feathers falling out all over the place. Realising that this is part of the natural life cycle for chickens I do now question whether using such images is morally right when seeking donations from uneducated people…

At the moment I am left undecided on what production method I support for poultry as they both have advantages and disadvantages. With the number of eggs that humans consume the manpower and space needed for a free range system would be astronomical. We are visiting a chicken production farm next Thursday so hopefully this will help me make a decision.

A disaster of anatomy… (Day 213)

UVM Kosice own Angiology and Nervous System Anatomy Books

Today’s Diary Entry is sponsored by Vet School Success

Well today was a little bit of a disaster when it came to anatomy, last night I went to anatomy self study to look at the lungs, larynx and trachea and found that they did not have any specimens. As I was at BSAVA Congress last week I hadn’t seen these before and so had to rely on video, diagrams and photo’s. When it came time for the exam they managed to turn up the different specimens and so I got to see these for the first time. Whilst knowing the theory and different parts trying to relate this to the specimen under exam conditions is not easy as you are under pressure for an answer, and especially when it comes to different margins and facies is extremely difficult being unorientated! Though I knew the theory I still managed to fail this mornings exam as I made stupid mistakes like mistaking pig lungs for cow lungs (though I knew ruminants and pigs have bronchus trachealis to the cranial lobe) and basically for not knowing where the facies medium vertebral and mediastinal parts were.

UVM Kosice own Angiology and Nervous System Anatomy BooksToday we started looking at the hoof, mammary gland, eye and ear which meant that we moved onto the next textbook. This meant that during the class we were left without a book and had to rely on notes alone, so after class finished I went to the library to try and find a clean (unwritten/drawn in) textbook to copy. I then ended up getting this copied for 5 extra people as well this afternoon which was interesting as it took two bags to carry them back in. I especially find the hoof interesting as basically it has the nail which surrounds the outside, which is simply suspended to the bone by ligaments – pretty amazing when you consider how much work it does!

This evening went to doing a little bit of reading up on chemistry which I now know I need to understand in explicit detail to give me the ability to get the higher grades.